For many couples, infertility may come out as a tragedy that causes intense mental trauma and agony in their life. As per WHO study, in India, around 10 to 15% cases of infertility were reported in couples, out of which 20% cases had found both partners with detectable abnormalities. Also, malefactors were shown to play a significant role in approximately 50% of infertile couples.
Since past decades, a significant progress in the diagnosis of infertility has been also reported due to some dramatic changes in all aspects of infertility research. Therefore, an innovative diagnostic testing and advanced technology have brought in a new ray of hope for infertile and hopeless couples.
In Male infertility, spermatology or semen examination is a basic investigation process that not only reports the quantity and quality of sperms but also the quality of the seminal fluid or plasma which is required for that normal functioning of sperms.
In the recent clinical practice, usually three important in investigation procedures are performed such as-
(a) Analysis of the sperm fertilizing ability
(b) Quality of male accessory sex glands hormones and
(c) Managing azoospermic (semen without sperm) patients.
Above spermatology practices are beneficial for a wide selection of infertility patients that allows infertility specialists to recommend their patients the best possible and effective treatment.
Spermatology role in treatment of Male infertility
There may be various reasons that cause male infertility. Management and treatment of infertility totally depend on the thorough diagnosis of sperms by performing various needful spermatology tests, such as- semen analysis, evaluation, as well as quality and efficacy testing of male sex hormones.
Besides the routine semen analysis, specific investigations testing are also required to assess the sperm functions, such as-
1) An acrosomal Enzyme Test: It helps to access the ability of sperm fertilization.
2) Chromatin Condensation Test: It shows the physical and functional features of the sperms.
3) HOS test (Hypo-osmotic swelling): It helps to analyze the physical integrity of sperm, as well as to analyze various chemical changes in the sperm plasma membrane.
4) Hemi-zona Assay: It is known as the latest and most reliable method to know the exact information related to the efficiency of sperm fertility.
5) Analysis of various energy substrates such as semen CPK, ATP, and mitochondrial index activities are also considered as they have a direct correlation with sperm concentration, motility, and fertilizing ability.
6) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used as diagnostic tools to measure the fertilizing efficiency of sperm.
7) Also, analysis of accessory sex glands functions and obstruction can be performed by using fructose, alpha-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays.
8) In sophisticated cases, testicular examination and serum FSH level may be considered for the management of infertility.
For more information and any query related to Spermatology consult with our experienced Gynecologists and Surgeons at Shah Hospital.