PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease or syndrome)
PCOD is also referred as known as Polycystic Ovary syndrome, a very common problem that occurs amongst 5% to 10% of women of 12–45 years age. The principal implications of PCOD involve irregular periods, no egg production (ovulation), acne and hirsutism.
In this problem, women’s sex hormones i.e. estrogen and progesterone are out of balance which induces growth of small ovarian cysts in the ovaries mostly benign in nature, menstrual problems and ultimately difficulty in conceiving a baby.
An untreated PCOD may cause non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity and high cholesterol level in blood which may lead to heart disease.
The most common symptoms related to PCOD are:
- Obesity and trouble in losing weight
- Excessive hair on the body and face
- Thinning of hair on the scalp
- Irregular or abnormal periods
- Pain and bleeding during periods
- Fertility and pregnancy problems
- Anxiety and depression
Causes of PCOD
- Genetic reasons
- Hormonal Imbalance
- Elevated Androgen hormone
Risks and Complications
- High risk of miscarriage
- Premature delivery
- Gestational diabetes
- Endometrial cancer
- Breast cancer
- Obesity-related complications
- Review of medical history and symptoms
- Physical and pelvic examinations are performed to examine the signs of PCOD such as a swollen clitoris, or swollen ovaries.
- Blood tests, thyroid function tests, fasting glucose tests, and lipid profile tests are performed to exclude other possibilities.
- A vaginal ultrasound is performed to create real-time images of female reproductive organs.
- Also, a pelvic laparoscopy procedure can be performed to check for growths on both ovaries. If any growth is seen by the doctor then he/she may take a small tissue or sample (biopsy) for further examination.
Regular Food and Exercise
- Healthy food, Regular Exercise, and Weight control are the key treatments for reducing blood glucose level and regulating the menstrual cycle.
- Birth-control pills are recommended to reduce symptoms in women who don’t want to conceive.
- Metformin is given to regularize menstrual cycles.
- Fertility medicines are prescribed to those women who are having trouble getting pregnant.
- Anti-Androgen Drugs helps to keep testosterone in check and also overcome excessive hair growth and acne.
Surgery can be recommended in some women with PCOS. Laparoscopy Ovarian Drilling is an immensely effective procedure where doctor drills multiple holes in the ovary with a small needle that carries an electric current and carefully destroys abnormal ovarian tissues. This helps to restore a normal ovarian function and allows ovulation in women.
For more information related to PCOD and its treatment consult with our expert Gynecologists and Surgeons at Shah Hospital.